Bromelain, Processes Cytotoxic Property Against Peritoneal Mesothelioma

By Kyle J. Norton

Peritoneal mesothelioma is a medical condition characterized by irregular cells growth in the tissues of the abdomen (the peritoneum).

Most cases of peritoneal mesothelioma begin in the cell in the surface of the inner lining of the peritoneum, before penetrating into the deeper layers.
At the early stage, due to the small size of the tumor, patients with peritoneal mesothelioma are asymptomatic.
However, at the later stage, patients may experience symptoms of abdominal pain or swelling due to the larger size tumor has pressed on the nearby nerves tissues and blood vessels, changes in bowel habits, feeling of fullness and night sweat accompanied by the general symptoms shared by other types of cancer, such as unexplained weight loss, gastrointestinal discomforts, and loss of appetite.
According to the statistics provided by the American Cancer Society, compared to other types of cancer mesothelioma is rare, approximately  2,000 to 3,000 new cases of mesothelioma in the US each year.  The asbestos-related mesothelioma only accounts for less than 0.3 percent of all cancer diagnosed in the country.

Peritoneal mesothelioma accounts for less than 20 percent of all mesothelioma cases.

Dr. Rodolfo Fonte, the lead scientist in the examination of the risk of asbestos-induced peritoneal mesothelioma in a construction worker, wrote, “Peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare and aggressive asbestos-related malignancy. We present the case of a 65-year-old man who developed recurrent ascites after having been exposed to asbestos in the building industry for > 40 years”.

And, “Occupational history and immunohistochemistry are helpful for the correct diagnosis, which, in turn, is important in relation to prognosis and treatment (adoption of new integrated procedures that seem to promise prolonged survival and increased quality of life), and in relation to medicolegal issues and occupation-related compensation claims following asbestos exposure”.
Bromelain, a proteolytic enzyme found in pineapples (Ananas comosus) has been used in traditional medicine as an inflammatory agent and to treat pains, strains, and muscle aches and pains and ease back pain and chronic joint pain, skin diseases, etc.

With an aim to find a natural ingredient for the treatment of peritoneal mesothelioma, researchers examined the effects of Bromelain (cysteine proteinase) effects on Mucin 1 (MUC1), a glycosylation-dependent protein that confers tumors with invasiveness, metastasis, and chemoresistance.

On the study in which researchers compared the efficacy of with the application of various concentrations of bromelain and after 4 and 72 h and combinations of bromelain and cytotoxic drugs (cisplatin or 5-FU) at 72 h, MUC1-expressing MPM cell lines found that bromelain increased the cytotoxicity of cisplatin significantly in cell lines.

Compared to the aforementioned inhibition, combining fluorouracil with bromelain did not show a significant increase in cytotoxicity.

In other words, bromelain improves the chemotherapy depending totally on the types of drugs used for the treatment of peritoneal mesothelioma.
Furthermore, bromelain used alone also showed a significant effect in inducing cell death by apoptosis and autophagy. 

On pancreatic and breast cancer cells, injection of bromelain also adversely affected the viability of MUC1 expressing on both cell lines.

Based on the findings, Bromelain used alone or combined with other chemo drugs might have a strong effect on the barrier function of MUC1.

Collectively, bromelain inhibited the progression and proliferation of peritoneal mesothelioma by blocking the activity of gene MUC1.

Dr. Pillai K, the lead scientists said, ” current evidence indicates that bromelain may have the potential of being developed into an effective anticancer agent for MPM”.

Taken altogether, bromelain may be considered supplements for the prevention and treatment of peritoneal mesothelioma, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

Intake of bromelain in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.
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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it’s news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada – Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

Sources
(1) Anticancer effect of bromelain with and without cisplatin or 5-FU on malignant peritoneal mesothelioma cells by Pillai K1, Ehteda A, Akhter J, Chua TC, Morris DL. (PubMed)
(2) Anticancer property of bromelain with therapeutic potential in malignant peritoneal mesothelioma by Pillai K1, Akhter J, Chua TC, Morris DL. (PubMed)
(3) Asbestos-induced peritoneal mesothelioma in a construction worker by Rodolfo Fonte, Salvatore Gambettino, Mario Melazzini, Mario Scelsi, Claudio Zanon, andStefano M Candura. (PMC)