Carotenoids Reduce Risk of Lung Cancer

By Kyle J. Norton

The lung is one of the vital organs in human located near the backbone on either side of the heart with functions of inhaling oxygen from the air then transporting them to the bloodstream to nourish the body cells need and exhaling carbon dioxide from the bloodstream.

Lung cancer is a chronic and medical condition characterized by abnormal growth of the cells in the lung’s tissue.

Most common form of primary lung cancers is derived from epithelial cells. 
The exact cause of lung cancer is not identified. However, epidemiologically, smoking, second smoke, exposure to certain chemicals, family history, people who have lung disease and excessive drinking are some prevalent factors associated with lung cancer developing.

According to the statistics provided by the American cancer society, Lung cancer accounts for 14% of all new cancers diagnosed in the US. In 2018, there were about 234,030 new cases of lung cancer (121,680 in men and 112,350 in women). Lung cancer also causes the death of 83,550 in men and 70,500 in women in the same year.

Lung cancer can be classified into 2 major types
* Non-small cell lung cancer
Non-small cell lung cancer is the most common type of lung cancer that usually grows and spreads methodically and predictably. Most common types of Non-small cell lung cancer lung cancers include
**Squamous-cell carcinoma often is found in an outer area of the lung.
** Large-cell carcinoma is found in the center of the lung by an air tube.
** Adenocarcinoma is found in any part of the lung.

* Small cell lung cancer
Small cell lung cancer is a fast-growing type of lung cancer, that can spread to distant parts of the body in a relatively early stage. Most common types of small cell lung cancer include
* Small cell carcinoma is small, round and resemble oats.

*Mixed small cell/large cell carcinoma is found in combining components of small cell lung carcinoma with large cell lung carcinoma.
*Combined small cell carcinoma is found in combining of a component of small cell lung carcinoma with components of non-small cell lung carcinoma.

Carotenoids is a class of mainly yellow, orange, or red fat-soluble pigments, including lycopene and carotene, found abundantly in ripe tomato, pumpkins, carrots, corn, and daffodils.

On finding a potential compound for the treatment of lung cancer, researchers to compare the dietary intake and serum levels of some selected carotenoids of lung cancer patients with healthy subjects.

The case-control study included 35 lung cancer patients and 33 healthy people with a daily intake of nutrients estimated by using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and a 3-day 24-h food recall questionnaire.
According to the tested analysis, 
* The beta-carotene and lycopene intake of the case subjects was 96% and 195% higher in the lung participants compared to those of control.

* Daily intake of fruits and vegetables in the cancer group was higher compared to control group.

However, the serum concentration of beta-carotene and lycopene were 118% and 60% higher in the control group compared to the lung cancer group.


These results suggested that there must be some unknown mechanisms associated with the reduced levels of beta-carotene and lycopene in the blood of lung cancer patients.

In other words, the intake of beta-carotene and lycopene daily reduces the risk of lung cancer in healthy individuals.
Dr. Asbaghi S, the lead scientist after taking other factors such as age, gender, smoking habits, weight, body mass index, mean daily energy intake, mean daily fat intake into account wrote, “Despite a higher daily dietary intake of beta-carotene and lycopene by lung cancer patients, serum beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations were significantly lower than the group without cancer”.

Taken altogether, carotenoids processed abundantly beta-carotene and lycopene may be considered a remedy for the prevention of lung cancer, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

Intake of carotenoids in the form of supplement should be taken with extreme care to prevent overdose acute liver toxicity.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it’s news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada – Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

Sources
(1) Dietary Intake and Serum Level of Carotenoids in Lung Cancer Patients: A Case-Control Study by Asbaghi S1, Saedisomeolia A, Hosseini M, Honarvar NM, Khosravi A, Azargashb E. (PubMed)
(2) Blood concentrations of carotenoids and retinol and lung cancer risk: an update of the WCRF-AICR systematic review of published prospective studies by Abar L1, Vieira AR1, Aune D1,2, Stevens C1, Vingeliene S1, Navarro Rosenblatt DA1, Chan D1, Greenwood DC3, Norat T. (PubMed)
(3) Lung Cancer by Kyle J. Norton