Green Peas (Pisum Sativum), the Potential Treatment of Colitis

By Kyle J. Norton

Colitis is a general term associated with the inflammation of the inner lining of the colon.

The disease can be caused by infection, inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn’s disease (CD), ulcerative colitis(CD)), ischemic colitis, allergic reactions, and microscopic colitis.

Most cases of colitis are involved in the damage of the intestinal mucosal barrier, particularly to those of ulcerative colitis.

Epidemiologically, damage and a reduction of gut bacteria by dietary chemicals, such as antibiotics of the protective mucus layer and the underlying tissue by the poorly inactivated digestive proteases have been found to induce both UC and CD.

The intestinal mucosal barrier is the outermost inner layer of the lining of the intestines which plays an essential role to ensure the adequate containment of undesirable luminal contents within the intestine while preserving the ability to absorb nutrients.

Additionally, the intestinal mucosal barrier also processes various immunological mediators, including cytokines and chemokines stimulated by gut microbiota and host immune responses, thus maintaining a well-balanced relationship between gut microbes and the host immune system.

In other words, the intestinal mucosal barrier protects the colonic integrity by interacting with the gut microbiota and the immune response to prevent the inflammation of the colon that causes the onset of colitis.

Some researchers suggested the promotion of a high-fat diet over the past few decades may be one of the most prevalent factors that increase the risk of colitis.

Dr. Max Gulhane, the lead scientist wrote, “Prolonged high-fat diets (HFD) induce low-grade chronic intestinal inflammation in mice, and diets high in saturated fat are a risk factor for the development of human inflammatory bowel diseases”.

And, “HFD-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/oxidative stress occur in intestinal secretory goblet cells, triggering inflammatory signaling and reducing synthesis/secretion of proteins that form the protective mucus barrier“.

The finding strongly suggested the mucosal barrier dysfunction induces by a high-fat diet involved in the colitis developing.

Green peas are species of Pisum Sativum belongings to the family Fabaceae and native to western Asia from the Mediterranean Sea to the Himalaya Mountains. The pea is a green, pod-shaped vegetable and a cool-season crop grown in many parts of the world.

On finding a potent ingredient which processes anti-inflammatory activity with oxidative stress, researchers investigated the impact of green pea (GP) supplementation on the susceptibility of high-fat diet (HFD) in an animal model. 

The study included Six-week-old C57BL/6J female mice randomly assigned into groups fed a 45% HFD or HFD supplemented with 10% GP. After 7-week dietary supplementation, following by colitis induced by adding 2.5% DSS in drinking water for 7 days followed by a 7-day recovery period.

According to the tested analysis, GP supplementation ameliorated the disease activity index score in HFD-fed mice by reducing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Furthermore, inflammatory markers associated with inflammatory proteins and enzymes such as interleukin (IL)-6, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), IL-17, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in HFD-fed mice were also decreased by GP supplement.

Goblet cell differentiation markers in HFD-fed mice.associated with mucus secretion and function during the stage of inflammation were also increased by the administration of GP supplementation.

Furthermore, endoplasmic reticulum (er) stress-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in HFD-fed mice was also inhibited by GP supplement.
Based on the findings, researchers wrote, “GP supplementation ameliorated the severity of DSS-induced colitis in HFD-fed mice, which was associated with the suppression of inflammation, mucin depletion, and ER stress in the colon”.

Taken altogether, green peas may be considered a functional food for the prevention and treatment of colitis, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it’s news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada – Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

Sources
(1) Dietary Green Pea Protects against DSS-Induced Colitis in Mice Challenged with High-Fat Diet by Bibi S1, de Sousa Moraes LF2, Lebow N3, Zhu MJ. (PubMed)
(2) High Fat Diets Induce Colonic Epithelial Cell Stress and Inflammation that is Reversed by IL-22 by Max Gulhane,1 Lydia Murray,1 Rohan Lourie,1 Hui Tong,1 Yong H. Sheng,1 Ran Wang,1 Alicia Kang,2Veronika Schreiber,1 Kuan Yau Wong,1 Graham Magor,3 Stuart Denman,4 Jakob Begun,1 Timothy H. Florin,1Andrew Perkins,3 Páraic Ó. Cuív,2 Michael A. McGuckin,1 and Sumaira Z. Hasnaina. (PMC)