By Kyle J. Norton
Skin, a large external organ in the human body is the outer layer, with a total area of about 20 square feet which protect the internal organs, bones, and tissues against damage.
The skin processes 3 main layers
* Epidermis is the outer most layer of the skin providing a barrier against infection from environmental pathogens. The outer layers also regulate the amount of water released from the body through transepidermal water loss.
* Dermis is the second layer of skin, containing blood capillaries, nerve endings, sweat glands, hair follicles, and other structures.
* The bottom layer is the subcutaneous fat which has been found to process the protective effect against the dangers of visceral fat.
Skin inflammation is a condition that occurs when your immune system responds to a stimulus or trigger inflammation on the skin.
Inflammation is a natural process of the immune system which tries to protect our body against the invasion of stimuli and pathogens.
This process has been found to involve several stages after the bodily injury caused by physical impact or internal damage.
In the acute phase of infection, the white blood cells of the first line of immune defense stimulate to the production of blood coagulation to cover the wound and activate the protein associated with the production of inflammatory cytokines to kill off the invaders before they can enter the body.
However, overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines can lead to damage and death of the healthy cells, causing the irreversible scars as in liver hepatitis infection.
Chronic inflammation (CI) is a result in which the immune system can not destroy the invasive pathogens in the acute phase of infection within 3- 8 weeks, leading to the immune adaptation of the new change in facilitating low-grade inflammatory diseases, including arthritis and diabetes.
On finding a potential compound for the treatment of skin disease, researchers examined the effect of tussilagonone (TGN), a sesquiterpene compound isolated from T. farfara anti-inflammatory activity.
In RAW 264.7 cells, based on the tested analysis, administration of TGN enhanced the HO-1 expression associated with reducing inflammatory stress, oxidative stress, and ER stress and nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), associated with the antioxidant defense in a time- and dose-dependent manner.
Futhermore, TGN also suppressed the proteins associated with the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) by reducing the mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines.
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Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it’s news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada – Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.
(1) Heme oxygenase-1-mediated anti-inflammatory effects of tussilagonone on macrophages and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced skininflammation in mice by Lee J1, Kang U2, Seo EK2, Kim YS. (PubMed)