Phytochemical Indicaxanthin Blocks the Onset of Oxidative Stress

By Kyle J. Norton


Oxidative stress is a  condition associated with the long-term imbalanced ratio of free radicals and antioxidants in the body, leading to protein, lipid, and cells damage that cause chronic illness such as heart disease, stroke, and diabetes.

In other words, the condition is caused either by overexpression of free radicals or depletion of antioxidant enzymes produced by the host or both.

Antioxidants are either produced by the body or injected to the body from the outside sources such as consumptions of antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables.

Free radicals are everywhere, including the air we breathe, the food we eat and the body daily functioning such as cell metabolism.

More precisely, any chemical compound which has an oxygen molecule can become free radical after entering our body.

In healthy individuals, the antioxidant produced by the host is more than enough to counter the bombards of free radicals. However, for people with a weakened immune system such as elderly and immature immune system such as baby may need the injection of antioxidants from the outside sources.

Particularly, people with a suppressive immune system due to chemotherapy may require to intake large amounts from antioxidant-rich food regularly.

Dr. Biller-Takahashi JD and colleagues wrote, “Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are reactive molecules containing oxygen, that form as byproducts of aerobic metabolism, including immune system processes. Too much ROS may cause oxidative stress”.

And, ” This study shows a relationship between oxidative stress and immunity, and, from a practical perspective, shows that improving immunity and health in pacu through the administration of selenium could improve their growth performance”.

However, free radicals in moderate amount are needed for body functioning, including lower blood pressure, relax blood vessels to move blood, such as nitric oxide NO.

3,3′-Diindolylmethane or DIM are phytochemicals derived from the digestion of indole-3-carbinol, belonging to the group of Indoles, found abundantly in broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, and kale, etc.

Indicaxanthin is phytochemicals in the class of red and yellow indole-derived pigments of Betacyanins, belongings to the group of Betalains found abundantly in beets, chard, etc.

On finding a potential ingredient for the prevention of disease associated with oxidative stress, researchers investigated the effect of indicaxanthin (Ind) on 7-KC-induced apoptosis of human monocyte/macrophage THP-1 cells.

Where 7-Ketocholesterol (7-KC) has been found to induce apoptosis of macrophages, a key event in the development of human atheromas.

Based on the tested analysis, 7-KC within 24 hours of injection within showed the pro-apoptotic activity observed by the early formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species over basal levels,  NADPH oxidase-4 (NOX-4) over-expression and elevation of cytosolic Ca²⁺, with progressive depletion of total thiols.

In other words, 7-KC induced oxidative stress in the human monocyte/macrophage THP-1 cells, leading to cytotoxicity.

Interestingly, 7-KCalso inhibited the process of the redox-sensitive NF-κB against oxidation in the tested cells.

Co-incubation of 2·5 μm of indicaxanthin completely prevented 7-KC-induced pro-apoptotic events.

The efficacy of indicaxanthin was attributed to the inhibition of NOX-4 basal activity and over-expression, inhibition of NF-κB activation.

More precisely indicaxanthin promoted the THP-1 cells redox balance and Ca homeostasis, thus preventing mitochondrial damage-induced apoptosis.

Based on the findings, researchers said, ” Ind, a highly bioavailable dietary phytochemical, may exert protective effects against atherogenic toxicity of 7-KC at a concentration of nutritional interest”.

Taken altogether, indicaxanthin may be considered a remedy for the prevention and treatment of diseases associated with oxidative stress, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it’s news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada – Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

Sources
(1) Phytochemical indicaxanthin suppresses 7-ketocholesterol-induced THP-1 cell apoptosis by preventing cytosolic Ca(2+) increase and oxidative stress by Tesoriere L1, Attanzio A, Allegra M, Gentile C, Livrea MA. (PubMed)
(2) The immune system is limited by oxidative stress: Dietary selenium promotes optimal antioxidative status and greatest immune defense in pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus by Biller-Takahashi JD1, Takahashi LS2, Mingatto FE3, Urbinati EC. (PubMed)