Tomato Inhibits the Onset and progression of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)

By Kyle J. Norton

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic condition caused by fat accumulated in the liver over time, in the absence of excessive alcohol use. 

The disease can be classified into the types of non-inflammatory fatty liver (NAFL) and inflammatory nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the major causes of cirrhosis and liver cancer.

According to world statistics, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is normally known as a disease of the Western world. However, due to the economic prosperity of Southeast Asian, the disease also was found in a large number of population in the cities, causing concerns of many scientists in the region.

According to the statistics, in the US, over 100 million people have non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and the condition is more double over the past 20 years. The disease also is the most prevalent liver disease in children.

Among the more affluent regions of China, the prevalence rate of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is approximately 15%. The number may decrease substantially if the poor rural populations where obesity is non-existence are also taking into account.

The exact causes of NAFLD aren’t well understood. Some researchers suggested that certain risk factors such as long-term use of certain medications, genetic preposition, insulin resistance, high cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood, polycystic ovary syndrome, metabolic syndrome, obesity, and type 2 diabetes are associated with the onset of the disease.

Recent studies also found that people with obstructive sleep apnea, underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism(10) and underactive pituitary gland (hypopituitarism) also at an increased risk of the NALFD.

Some researchers suggested that unhealthy diet such as high-fat diet may also have a strong implication on NAFLD(12)(13).

Dr. Jensen VS, the lead scientist in the study high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, wrote, “In humans and animal models, excessive intake of dietary fat, fructose, and cholesterol have been linked to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)”(13).

And, ” Only HFr-fed rats developed dyslipidemia as characterized by higher levels of plasma triglycerides compared to all other groups (p < 0.0001). Hepatic dysfunction and inflammation was confirmed in HFD-fed rats by elevated levels of hepatic MCP-1 (p < 0.0001), TNF-alpha (p < 0.001) and plasma β-hydroxybutyrate (p < 0.0001), and in NASH-fed rats by elevated levels of hepatic MCP-1 (p < 0.01), increased hepatic macrophage infiltration (p < 0.001), and higher plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase (p < 0.0001) aspartate aminotransferase (p < 0.05), haptoglobin (p < 0.001) and TIMP-1 (p < 0.01) compared to Control”

Tomato is red, edible fruit, genus Solanum, belonging to family Solanaceae, native to South America. Because of its health benefits, the tomato is grown worldwide for the commercial purpose
and often in the greenhouse.

In the urgency to discover healthy foods for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), researchers examined the effect of tomato juice consumption on high-fat diet-induced alterations in certain intestinal bacterial groups.

The study included a rat model with NAFLD induced by a high-fat diet that was randomly assigned to involving four experimental groups, including NA (standard diet and water), NL (standard diet and tomato juice), HA (high-fat diet and water) and HL (high-fat diet and tomato juice).

Rats with NAFLD were found to have an impaired gut microbiota profile observed by reducing the abundance of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus and increasing Enterobacteriaceae.

Futhermore, according to the tested analysis, NAFLD rat also showed reduced concentrations of propionate, butyrate and phenolic catabolites and an increased acetate to propionate (Ac : Pr) ratio. 
In other words, levels of antioxidant enzymes in the gut also decreased by the in NAFLD induced by high-fat diet rats compared to NA and HA.
Oral administration of tomato juice partially ameliorated high-fat diet-induced disturbances, particularly by increasing Lactobacillus abundance and diminishing the Ac : Pr ratio. 
More precisely, tomato juice protected the gut microbiome composition against the alternation induced NAFLD.
Researchers after taking into account of co and confounders wrote, “(Tomato juice may be) a potential improvement of the metabolic pattern of NAFLD’.

Taken altogether, tomato may be considered a dietary supplements for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD, pending to large sample size and multicenter human study.

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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it’s news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada – Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

Sources
(1) A study of the prebiotic-like effects of tomato juice consumption in rats with diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by García-Alonso FJ1, González-Barrio R, Martín-Pozuelo G, Hidalgo N, Navarro-González I, Masuero D, Soini E, Vrhovsek U, Periago MJ. (PubMed)
(2) Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) Treatment In Healthy Food Perspective by Kyle J. Norton