Whole Food Tomato Inhibits Colorectal Cancer in Vitro and Vivo

By Kyle J. Norton

Colorectal cancer is a medical condition caused by irregular cell growth in the tissues of the colon or rectum.

Most cases of colorectal cancer start in the cell on the surface of the inner lining of the colon or rectum, before penetrating into the deeper layer to induce localized tumor.

At the very early stage of colorectal cancer, most patients are asymptomatic due to the very size of the tumor that does not affect the function of the colon or rectum. However, at the advanced stage, the oversize tumor can press on the nearby blood vessels and nerves and affect the organ functioning, leading to severe pain and bleeding and specific symptoms accompanied by the general symptoms shared by other types of cancer.

At this stage, cancer cells can also travel a distance away to infect other healthy tissues and organ, leading to secondary metastasis.

According to the statistics provided by the American Cancer Society, colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer diagnosed in both men and women in the United States.proximately, in 2019, 101,420 new cases of colon cancer and 44,180 rectal cancer will be diagnosed.

The lifetime risk of developing colorectal cancer is about 1 in 22 (4.49%) for men and 1 in 24 (4.15%) for women.

The 5-year survival rate of people with localized stage colorectal cancer is 90%. However, only 39% of patients are diagnosed at an early stage.

Out of many risk factors associated with the onset of colorectal cancer, some researchers suggested that the widespread of colorectal cancer in the South Korean may be correlated with the promotion of a high-fat diet over the past few decades, particularly in men.
Dr. Kim, Jeehyun, wrote, “In men, total fat intake was not associated with risk of colorectal adenoma. However, the risk of colorectal adenoma increased with higher saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake. The adjusted odds ratio in the highest quintile was 1.71 (95% confidence interval, 1.01–2.91) compared with that in the lowest quintile”.

Tomato is red, edible fruit, genus Solanum, belonging to family Solanaceae, native to South America. Because of its health benefits, the tomato is grown worldwide for the commercial purpose
and often in the greenhouse.

In the urgency to find a potential compound for the treatment of colon cancer, researchers investigated the effects of tomato powder (TP) on the development of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colorectal cancer in Wistar rats.

According to the tested assays, TP added to feed at 5% rate decreased the rate of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) associated with the early stage of colon cancer developing and reduces the development of adenocarcinoma and growth of AOM-induced colorectal cancer in rats.

TP supplementation also demonstrated chemopreventive activities against the protein involving in the stimulating production of proinflammatory cytokines in the colon tissues and promoted cancer cells apoptosis.
Based on the findings, Dr. Tuzcu M, the lead scientist wrote, “Our findings identify an intimate connection between dietary supplementation of TP and the decreased risk of colorectal cancer in rats”.
And “suggest that consumption of TP would be a natural candidate for the prevention of colorectal cancer in men”.

Furthermore, according to the joint study led by the University of Almería, tomato showed significant time- and concentration-dependent inhibitory/cytotoxic effects on HT-29 cells.

Moreover, adding tomato carotenoids and olive oil to HT-29 cell in cultures demonstrated a better inhibitory effect compared to the application of individual compound in CCD-18 normal cells.

In variety comparison, Racimo tomato displayed the most anti-cancer activity against the colorectal cancer cell proliferation compared to others, without affecting the normal CCD-18 cells. 

In chemical analysis, olive oil and tomato carotenoids inhibited the HT-29 cancer cell proliferation synergistically compared to no effect of other phenolic compounds.


Taken altogether, tomato alone or combined with olive oil may be considered supplements for the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer, pending to the confirmation of the larger sample size and multicenter human study.
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Author Biography
Kyle J. Norton (Scholar, Master of Nutrition, All right reserved)

Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published online, including worldwide health, ezine articles, article base, health blogs, self-growth, best before it’s news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada – Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bioscience, ISSN 0975-6299.

Sources
(1) Tomato powder impedes the development of azoxymethane-induced colorectal cancer in rats through suppression of COX-2 expression via NF-κB and regulating Nrf2/HO-1 pathway by Tuzcu M1, Aslan A, Tuzcu Z, Yabas M, Bahcecioglu IH, Ozercan IH, Kucuk O, Sahin K. (PubMed)
(2) Phytochemical composition and in vitro anti-tumour activities of selected tomatovarieties by Ramos-Bueno RP1, Romero-González R2, González-Fernández MJ1, Guil-Guerrero JL. (PubMed)
(3) Association between dietary fat intake and colorectal adenoma in korean adults
A cross-sectional study by Kim, Jeehyun, MD; Oh, Seung-Won, MD, MBA, PhD; Kim, Young-Sun, MD, PhD; Kwon, Hyuktae, MD, MPH, PhD; Joh, Hee-Kyung, MD, MPH, PhD; Lee, Ji-Eun, MD; Park, Danbee, MD; Park, Jae-Hong, MD; Ko, Ah-Ryoung, MD; Kim, Ye-Ji, MD. (Medicine)